Braking and Stopping
Model S has an anti-lock braking system (ABS) that prevents the wheels from locking when you apply maximum brake pressure. This improves steering control during heavy braking in most road conditions.
During emergency braking conditions, the ABS constantly monitors the speed of each wheel and varies the brake pressure according to the grip available.
The alteration of brake pressure can be felt as a pulsing sensation through the brake pedal. This demonstrates that the ABS is operating and is not a cause for concern. Keep firm and steady pressure on the brake pedal while experiencing the pulsing.
In an emergency, fully press the brake pedal and maintain firm pressure, even on low traction surfaces. The ABS varies the braking pressure to each wheel according to the amount of traction available. This prevents wheels from locking and ensures that you stop as safely as possible.
If an alternative method is needed to bring the vehicle to a stop, press and hold the Park button on the drive stalk to apply the brakes and remove drive torque while the button is held.
Dynamic Brake Lights (if equipped)
If you are driving over 50 km/h and brake forcefully (or if Automatic Emergency Braking engages), the brake lights flash quickly to warn other drivers that Model S is rapidly slowing down. If Model S stops completely, the hazard warning lights flash. Flashing continues until you press the accelerator or manually press the hazard lights button to turn them off (see ).
Brake Disc Wiping
To ensure brakes remain responsive in cold and wet weather, Model S is equipped with brake disc wiping. When cold and wet weather is detected, this feature repeatedly applies an imperceptible amount of brake force to remove water from the surface of the brake discs.
Hydraulic Fade Compensation
Model S is equipped with hydraulic fade compensation. This assists in monitoring brake system pressure and ABS activity for instances of reduced brake performance. If reduced brake performance is detected (for example, as a result of brake fade, or cold or wet conditions), you may hear a sound, feel the brake pedal pull away from your foot, and notice a strong increase in braking. Brake as you normally would and continue to press the brake pedal without releasing or pumping the brakes.
Hydraulic Boost Compensation
Model S is equipped with a brake booster that activates the brakes when the brake pedal is pressed. Hydraulic boost compensation provides mechanical assistance if the brake booster fails. If a brake booster failure is detected, the brake pedal feels stiffer to press and you may hear a sound when you press the brake pedal. To stop Model S, apply steady force to the brake pedal without releasing or pumping. Drive cautiously and maintain a safe distance from other road users—brake pedal responsiveness and braking performance may be degraded.
Whenever Model S is moving and your foot is off the accelerator, regenerative braking slows down the vehicle and feeds any surplus power back to the Battery. By anticipating your stops and reducing or removing pressure from the accelerator pedal to slow down, you can take advantage of regenerative braking to increase driving range.
The power meter on the Energy app displays real-time feedback on the amount of power being used. You can also display the power meter on either side of the instrument panel by choosing Energy using the scroll button on the steering wheel (see Steering Wheel). When energy is being gained by regenerative braking, the power meter displays a green area that represents the amount of power that is being fed back to the Battery.
The amount of power fed back to the Battery using regenerative braking can depend on the current state of the Battery. For example, regenerative braking may be limited if the Battery is cold or is already fully charged. When regenerative braking is limited, the power meter displays a dashed line to indicate the amount of deceleration power that is not being fed back to the Battery.
To Set the Regenerative Braking Level
You can use the touchscreen to change the level of regenerative braking:
- Touch .
- Choose from two levels:
- Standard: Provides the maximum amount of regenerative braking. When you release the accelerator, Model S slows down.
- Low: Limits regenerative braking. When you release the accelerator, Model S takes longer to slow down and coasts farther than if set to "Standard".
Regenerative braking decelerates Model S whenever you release the accelerator pedal when driving. You can choose what you want Model S to do once the driving speed has been reduced to a very low speed (almost at a stop) and both the accelerator pedal and brake pedal are released. While in Park, touch and choose from these options:
CREEP: When close to, or at, a complete stop, the motor continues to apply torque, moving Model S slowly forward (in Drive) or backwards (in Reverse), similar to a conventional vehicle with an automatic transmission. In some situations, such as on a steep hill or driveway, you may need to press the accelerator pedal to continue moving or to prevent Model S from moving in the opposite direction.WarningNever rely on CREEP to apply enough torque to prevent your vehicle from rolling down a hill. Always press the brake pedal to remain stopped or the accelerator pedal to proceed up the hill. Failure to do so can result in property damage and/or a collision.
HOLD: Maximizes range and reduces brake wear by continuing to provide regenerative braking at speeds lower than with the Creep and Roll settings. When Model S stops, the brakes are automatically applied without you having to put your foot on the brake pedal. Whether stopped on a flat surface or a hill, Vehicle Hold keeps the brake applied, provided your foot remains off the accelerator and brake pedals. See Vehicle Hold.WarningNever rely on HOLD to adequately decelerate or fully stop your vehicle. Many factors can contribute to a longer stopping distance, including downward slopes, the low regenerative braking setting, and reduced or limited regenerative braking (see Regenerative Braking). Always be prepared to use the brake pedal to adequately decelerate or stop.
ROLL: When close to, or at, a complete stop, Model S becomes free rolling like a vehicle in Neutral. Therefore, if stopped on a slope, Model S will roll downward. The brake does not engage, and the motor does not apply torque (until the accelerator pedal is pressed).NoteIf you choose CREEP or ROLL, you can still use Vehicle Hold to apply the brakes. However, you will need to briefly press the brake pedal when the vehicle is stopped. See Vehicle Hold.
To engage the parking brake, touch You can also engage the parking brake by pressing and holding the button on the end of the drive stalk while in Park.. Follow the onscreen instructions.
Use the touchscreen to manually release the parking brake (which also shifts Model S into Neutral):
- Touch .
- Press the brake pedal, then touch Parking Brake. If Model S was previously in Park, it shifts into Neutral.
Model S brake pads are equipped with wear indicators. A wear indicator is a thin metal strip attached to the brake pad that squeals as it rubs against the rotor when the pad wears down. This squealing sound indicates that the brake pads have reached the end of their service life and require replacement. To replace the brake pads, contact Tesla Service.
Brakes must be periodically inspected visually by removing the tire and wheel. For detailed specifications and service limits for rotors and brake pads, see Subsystems. Additionally, Tesla recommends cleaning and lubricating the brake calipers every year or 20,000 km if in an area where roads are salted during winter months.